What is chain reorganization in blockchain technology?
A blockchain reorganization attack refers to a string split in which nodes receive blocks from a new string while the old string continues to exist.
On May 25, the Ethereum Beacon chain underwent a seven-block reorganization and was exposed to a high-level security risk called chain organization. Eth2 tag string validators (now consensus layer update) were synchronized after a client update elevated specific clients. However, during the process, the blockchain network validators got confused and did not update their clients.
The reorganization of seven blocks means that seven blocks of transactions were added to the eventually discarded fork before the network discovered that it was not the canonical chain. Therefore, block chain reorganization occurs if some node operators are faster than others. During this scenario, the fastest nodes will not be able to agree on which block to process first and will continue to add blocks to their blockchain, leaving the string shorter when the next block is created.
For example, miners X and Y may locate a valid block at a time, but due to the way the blocks spread across a peer-to-peer network, a portion of the network will see the X block first, followed by of the Y. block.
If both blocks are of the same difficulty, a tie will occur, and customers will have the option to choose at random or select the previously viewed block. When a third miner, Z, creates a block on top of the X or Y block, the tie is usually broken and the other block is forgotten, leading to the reorganization of the block chain.
In the case of reorganizing the Beacon chain from Ethereum, the updated nodes were about 12 seconds faster than the validators that had not updated their clients in block 3,887,074. Ethereum string reorganization occurs when upgraded clients submit the next block before the other validators. This confused the validators about who should send the initial block.
Preston Van Loon, a core developer of Ethereum, stated that the reorganization of the Ethereum blockchain is due to the deployment of the proposal proposal proposal Boost Fork, which has not yet been fully implemented on the network. In addition, this reorganization is a non-trivial segmentation of upgraded versus outdated client software, not a sign of a poor fork choice.